Introduction:

As many of you know, I am less than one year away from starting to research and write my dissertation, which will deal with the relationship between the British Empire and “Atlantic Africa” in the eighteenth-century. With that in mind, I thought that it would be helpful to create a bibliography of secondary- sources on Atlantic Africa. That way I have all of the major surveys and monographs in one convenient location, and I can also share these works with interested TZR readers. Below I have started to make a bibliography of materials on Atlantic Africa in the early-modern era, roughly 1455 to 1807. The first date represents the arrival of Portuguese explorers to the Gambia River in 1455. The second date represents the abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade in Britain and the United States in 1807. Most other European powers ended this trade between the 1790s and the 1810s. Historians generally separate African History into a precolonial and colonial period, with the separation coming around the decade of the Berlin Conference in the 1880s. As such, “Atlantic Africa” is a term that refers to both a time and place. It refers to the centuries of the precolonial period during which certain regions of West Africa became increasingly integrated with a wider, hemispheric commercial world. This world was based around the Atlantic Ocean and it included both Europe and the Americas. As a final note, please be aware that this bibliography privileges the relationship between Britain and Atlantic Africa, since that relationship is at the heart of my dissertation.


The Upper Guinea Coast:

Barry, Boubacar. Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Rodney, Walter. History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Green, Toby. The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300-1589. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Wheat, David. Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

The Lower Guinea Coast:

Shumway, Rebecca. The Fante and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2011.

Ipsen, Pernille. Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Law, Robin. The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750: The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

—. Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘Port,’ 1727-1892. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Nwokeji, Ugo. The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra: An African Society in the Atlantic World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

West-Central Africa: 

Thornton, John K. The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Candido, Mariana P. An African Slaving Port and the Atlantic World: Benguela and Its Hinterland. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Overviews of Atlantic Africa:

Thornton, John K. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

British Perceptions of Atlantic Africa:

Curtin, Philip D. The Image of Africa: British Ideas and Action, 1780-1850, Vol. I. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1964.

Barker, Anthony J. The African Link: British Attitudes to the Negro in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1550-1807. England: Frank Cass and Company, 1978.

Caulker, Tcho Mbaimba. The African-British Long Eighteenth Century: An Analysis of African-British Treaties, Colonial Economics, and Anthropological Discourse. New York: Lexington Books, 2009.

Boulukos, George E. “Olaudah Equiano and the Eighteenth-Century Debate on Africa,” Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2 (Winter: 2007): 241-255.

African Cultures and the Diaspora: 

Gomez, Michael Angelo. Exchanging our country marks : the transformation of African identities in the colonial and antebellum South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Carney, Judith Ann. Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Rucker, Walter C. The River Flows on: Black Resistance, Culture, and Identity Formation in Early America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Mullin, Michael. Africa in America : slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Smallwood, Stephanie E. Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Sweet, James H. Domingos Álvares, African Healing, and the Intellectual History of the Atlantic World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

—. Recreating Africa: Culture, Kinship, and Religion in the African-Portuguese World, 1441-1770 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Mintz, Sidney W. and Richard Price, The birth of African-American culture: an anthropological perspective (Boston: Beacon Press, 1992).

Price, Richard. Alabi’s world (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).

Hawthorne, Walter. From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1830. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Ferreira, Roquinaldo Amaral. Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Atlantic World: Angola and Brazil during the Era of the Slave Trade (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012).