On Atlantic Africa generally

Araujo, Ana Lucia. Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage, and Slavery. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Bellagamba, Alice, Sandra Greene, and Martin Klein. African Voices on Slavery and the Slave Trade, Volume 1: The Sources. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Bennett, Herman. African Kings and Black Slaves: Sovereignty and Dispossession in the Early Modern Atlantic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.

Brooks, George. Eurafricans in Western Africa. Athens OH: Ohio University Press, 2003.

Brooks, George. Landlords and Strangers: Ecology, Society, and Trade in Western Africa, 1000-1630. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.

Curtin, Philip. Economic Change in Precolonial Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1975.

Davidson, Basil. Black Mother: The Years of the African Slave Trade. Boston: Little Brown, 1961.

DeCorse, Christopher (ed.). West Africa during the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives. London: Leicester University Press, 2001.

Diouf, Sylviane. Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003.

Eltis, David and David Richardson. Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Green, Toby. A Fistful of Shells: West Africa from the Rise of the Slave Trade to the Age of Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2019.

Hair, P.E.H. Africa Encountered: European Contacts and Evidence, 1450-1700. Brookfield, VT: Variorum Press, 1997.

Hopkins, A.G. An Eonomic History of West Africa. London: Longman, 1973.

Inikori, Joseph and Stanley Engerman (eds.). The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.

Inikori, Joseph. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Law, Robin (ed.). From Slave Trade to ‘Legitimate Commerce:’ The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Law, Robin, Suzanne Schwarz and Silke Strickrodt (eds.). Commercial Agriculture, the Slave Trade and Slavery in Atlantic Africa. Woodbridge: James Currey, 2013.

Lovejoy, Paul. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Second edition is from 2000.

Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Morgan, Philip. “Africa and the Atlantic, c. 1450-1820,” in Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal, ed. by Jack Greene and Philip Morgan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Northup, David. Africa’s Discover of Europe, 1450-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Ogundiran, Akinwumu and Toyin Falola. Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London: Bogle L’Ouverture Publications, 1972.

Stilwell, Sean. Slavery and Slaving in African History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. The second edition from 1998 goes up to 1800.

Thornton, John. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800. London: UCL Press, 1999.


On “Senegambia”

Barry, Boubacar. Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Baum, Robert. Shrines of the Slave Trade: Diola Religion and Society in Precolonial Senegambia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Getz, Trevor. Slavery and Reform in West Africa: Toward Emancipation in Nineteenth-Century Senegal and the Gold Coast. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Gomez, Michael. African Dominion: A New History of Empire in Early and Medieval West Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018.

Green, Toby. The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300-1589. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Kriger, Colleen. Making Money: Life, Death, and Early Modern Trade on Africa’s Guinea Coast. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2017.

Lovejoy, Paul. Jihad in West Africa during the Age of Revolutions. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2016.

Rodney, Walter. A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Searing, James. West African Slavery and Atlantic Commerce: The Senegal River Valley, 1700-1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Wheat, David. Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

Wright, Donald. The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of Globalization in Niumi, The Gambia. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2010.


On the “Windward Coast.

Fyfe, Christopher. A History of Sierra Leone. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Hawthorne, Walter. Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900. London: Heinemann, 2003.

Lovejoy, Paul and Suzanne Schwarz (eds.). Slavery, Abolition and the Transition to Colonialism in Sierra Leone. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 2015.

Scanlan, Padraic. Freedom’s Debtors: British Antislavery in Sierra Leone in the Age of Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017.

Shaw, Rosalind. Memories of the Slave Trade: Ritual and Historical Imagination in Sierra Leone. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Rediker, Marcus. The Amistad Rebellion: An Atlantic Odyssey of Slavery and Freedom. New York: Penguin Books, 2013.

Rodney, Walter. A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Kelley, Sean. The Voyage of the Slave Ship Hare: A Journey into Captivity from Sierra Leone to South Carolina. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.


On the “Gold Coast.”

Abaka, Edmund Kobina. House of Slaves and “Door or No Return:” Gold Coast/Ghana Slave Forts, Castles & Dungeons and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2012.

Daaku, Kwame Yeboa. Trade and Politics on the Gold Coast, 1600-1720: A Study of the African Reaction to European Trade. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.

Fynn, John Kofi. Asante and its Neighbours, 1700-1807. London: Longman, 1971.

Getz, Trevor. Slavery and Reform in West Africa: Toward Emancipation in Nineteenth-Century Senegal and the Gold Coast. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.

Holsey, Bayo. Routes of Remembrance: Refashioning the Slave Trade in Ghana. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Ipsen, Pernille. Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Kea, Ray. Settlement, Trade and Polities in the Seventeenth Century Gold Coast. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1982.

Kea, Ray. A Cultural and Social History of Ghana from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century: The Gold Coast in the Age of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 2 Vols. New York: Edwin Mellon Press, 2012.

Shumway, Rebecca. The Fante and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2014.

Shumway, Rebecca and Trevor Getz (eds.). Slavery and its Legacy in Ghana and the Diaspora. London: Bloomsbury Press, 2017.

Sparks, Randy. Where the Negroes are Masters: An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014.

St. Clair, William. The Door of No Return: The History of Cape Coast Castle and the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: BlueBridge Books, 2007.

St. Clair, William. The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade. London: Profile, 2006.


On the “Bight of Benin.”

Akinjogbin, I.A. Dahomey and its Neighbours, 1708-1818. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Alpern, Stanley. Black Sparta: The Women Warriors of Dahomey. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Araujo, Ana Lucia. Public Memory of Slavery: Victims and Perpetrators in the South Atlantic. New York: Cambria Press, 2010.

Argyle, William. The Fon of Dahomey: A History and Ethnography of the Old Kingdom. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Bay, Edna. Wives of the Leopard: Gender, Politics, and Culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998.

Fuglestad, Finn. Slave Traders by Invitation: West Africa’s Slave Coast in the Precolonial Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Law, Robin. The Kingdom of Allada. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 1997.

Law, Robin. The Oyo Empire c. 1600-c. 1836. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

Law, Robin. The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750: The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

Law, Robin. Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘Port’ 1727-1892. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2005.

Mann, Kristin. Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagod, 1760-1900. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Manning, Patrick. Slavery, Colonialism and Economic Growth in Dahomey, 1640-1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Monroe, Cameron. The Precolonial State in West Africa: Building Power in Dahomey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Newbury, Colin Walter. The Western Slave Coast and Its Rulers: European Trade and Administration Among the Yoruba and Adja-speaking Peoples of South-Western Nigeria, Southern Dahomey and Togo. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Polanyi, Karl. Dahomey and the Slave Trade, An Analysis of an Archaic Economy. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.


On The “Bight of Biafra”

Ade Ajayi, J.F. and Okon Edet Uya. Slavery and Slave Trade in Nigeria: From Earliest Times to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Safari Books, 2010.

Behrendt, Stephen, A.J.H. Latham, and David Northrup (eds.). The Diary of Antera Duke: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Slave Trader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Forge, Cyril Daryll. Efik Traders of Old Calabar. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Latham, A.J.H. Old Calabar, 1600-1891: The Impact of the International Economy upon a Traditional Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

Noah, Monday Efiong. Old Calabar: The City States and the Europeans, 1800-1865. Latvia, EU: Scholars Press, 1980.

Northrup, David. Trade Without Rulers: Precolonial Economic Development in the South-Eastern Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Nwokeji, G. Ugo. The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Ryder, A.F.C. Benin and the Europeans, 1485-1897. New York: Humanities Press, 1970.

Sparks, Randy. Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.


On West-Central Africa

da Silva, Daniel B. Domingues. The Atlantic Slave Trade from West-Central Africa, 1780-1867. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Heywood, Linda. Njinga of Angola: Africa’s Warrior Queen. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Heywood, Linda and John Thornton. Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Miller, Joseph. Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

Miller, Joseph. Kings and Kinsman: Early Mbundu States in Angola. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.

Thornton, John. The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonion Movement, 1684-1706. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Young, Jason. Rituals of Resistance: African Atlantic Religion in Kongo and the Lowcountry South in the Era of Slavery. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007.


On South Africa

Eldredge, Elizabeth and Fred Morton. Slavery in South Africa: Captive Labor on the Dutch Frontier. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.com Inc., 2010.

Gqola, Pumla Dineo. What is Slavery to Me? Postcolonial/Slave Memory in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2001.

Mason, John Edwin. Social Death and Resurrection: Slavery and Emancipation in South Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.

Ross, Robert. Cape of Torments: Slavery and Resistance in South Africa. New York: Routledge, 1983.

Worden, Nigel. Slavery in Dutch South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.


On East Africa

McMahon, Elisabeth. Slavery and Emancipation in Islamic East Africa: From Honor to Respectability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Médard, Henri and Shane Doyle (eds.) Slavery in the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.

Nwulia, Moses D.E. Britain and Slavery in East Africa. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1975.

Sheriff, Abdul. Slaves, Spices, and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987.


On North Africa

Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Inquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Savage, Elizabeth. The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Wright, John. The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade. New York: Routledge, 2007.