Overviews of Atlantic Africa

JOHN K. THORNTON. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

JOSEPH E. INIKORI. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.


Senegambia (now Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea)

BOUBACAR BARRY. Senegambia and the Atlantic Slave Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

WALTER RODNEY. History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.

TOBY GREEN. The Rise of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Western Africa, 1300-1589. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

DAVID WHEAT. Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.


The “Grain” or “Pepper Coast” (now Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire)

ROSALIND SHAW. Memories of the Slave Trade: Ritual and Historical Imagination in Sierra Leone. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.


The “Gold Coast” (now Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo)

REBECCA SHUMWAY. The Fante and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2011.

PERNILLE IPSEN. Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

RANDY J. SPARKS. Where the Negroes are Masters: An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014.

RAY A. KEA. Settlement, Trade, and Polities on the Seventeenth Century Gold Coast . Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1982.

J.K. FYNN. Asante and Its Neighbours, 1700-1807. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1971.


The “Slave Coast” (now Togo and Benin)

ROBIN LAW. The Slave Coast of West Africa, 1550-1750: The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on an African Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

—. Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘Port,’ 1727-1892. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004.

EDNA G. BAY. Wives of the Leopard: Gender, Politics, and Culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey. Charlottsville: University of Virginia Press, 1998.

I.A. AKINJOGBIN. Dahomey and its Neighbors, 1708-1818. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.


The “Bights of Benin and Biafra” (now Nigeria and Cameroon)

DAVID NORTHRUP. Trade Without Rulers: Pre-Colonial Economic Development in South-Eastern Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978).

G. UGO NWOKEJI. The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra: An African Society in the Atlantic World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

RANDY J. SPARKS. Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.


West-Central Africa (now Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, ROC, DRC, and Angola)

JOHN K. THORNTON. The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

MARIANA P. CANDIDO. An African Slaving Port and the Atlantic World: Benguela and Its Hinterland. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

LINDA M. HEYWOOD. Njinga of Angola: Africa’s Warrior Queen. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017.

JOSEPH MILLER. Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.


South Africa (now Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho)


East Africa (now Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Madagascar)

ABDUL SHERIFF. Slaves, Spices, and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. Suffolk, UK: J. Currey, 1987.